Attention should be given to the wording of the question which often directs the candidate where to look:
It is important to focus one’s time on the posterior segment when asked to do this, but a quick glance observing the anterior segment on the way to the posterior segment may yield a few clues to diagnosis:
Label the fovea in your diagram with a cross “+” (rather than an X which could indicate a laser burn at the fovea!)
If candidates are only allowed to use their indirect ophthalmoscope, the likelihood is that the pathology will be peripheral. Common lesions found in examinations would include chronic lesions such as a choroidal tumour or retinoschisis.
Signs that may be found:
Determine the level of haemorrhages by its relation to retinal vessels, colour and shape:
Signs of a Serous Retinal Detachment (vs. Rhegmatogenous)
Differentiating Retinoschisis (vs. Retinal detachment)
Record important positives and negatives e.g. presence / absence of:
Think about the eye / person as a whole. Look for systemic manifestations of retinal disease:
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Vitreoretinal Surgery Online
This open-source textbook provides step-by-step instructions for the full spectrum of vitreoretinal surgical procedures. An international collaboration from over 90 authors worldwide, this text is rich in high quality videos and illustrations.