7.1 Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor) Palsy
7.2 Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear) Palsy
7.3 Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens) Palsy
7.4 Cranial Nerve VII (Facial) Palsy
7.5 Optic Nerve Function
7.6 Visual Fields to Confrontation
7.8 Horner’s Syndrome
7.10 Neuro-Ophthalmic Differential Diagnoses and Aetiologies
A Horner’s syndrome arises from pathology in the sympathetic innervation of the eye. The two main clinical features are anisocoria and ptosis- the candidate may be directed to examine pupils or eyelids, although it is more common to request the pupillary examination. Once a Horner’s syndrome is diagnosed, associated signs should be sought that will assist with localising the lesion (to central, pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic).
A Horner’s Syndrome may be central (red), pre-ganglionic (blue) or post-ganglionic (green).
“Please examine this patient’s pupils”
Section 7.7 Pupils should be read in conjunction with this page.
Scars (neck scar with Horner’s, tracheostomy scar with previous trauma)
Check carefully for an ipsilateral minor abduction weakness or slowed abducting saccade CV VI (cavernous sinus)
Will NOT dilate Horner’s
Will ABNORMALLY dilate Horner’s
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