9.1 Corneal Topography and Tomography
9.2 Confocal Microscopy
9.3 Optical Coherence Tomography - Macula
9.4 Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A)
9.5 Optical Coherence Tomography - Glaucoma
9.6 Optical Coherence Tomography – Anterior Segment
9.7 Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging
9.8 Fundus Angiography - Fluorescein
9.9 Fundus Angiography - Indocyanine Green
9.10 B-scan Ultrasonography & UBM
9.12 Automated Visual Fields
Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) provides valuable information regarding fundus pathology. Intravenous fluorescein is injected, which remains in the retinal vasculature and is freely permeable to the choriocapillaris. It is impermeable to an intact blood-retinal barrier (retinal vessel walls and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)). Fluorescein absorbs blue light (wavelength 490nm) and emits yellow-green light (wavelength 530nm). A yellow-green barrier filter removes un-fluoresced reflected light wavelengths. A fundus camera is therefore able to detect the location of the fluorescein dye. Colour and red free photographs are usually taken prior to commencing FFA. All FFA’s should be read in conjunction with the clinical history and examination. It is important to recognise that this is a dynamic test.
The phases of FFA are as follows:
Neovascularisation of the Optic Disc (NVD)
An extensive fan of new vessels are seen at the disc due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Other features include early inferior retinal arcade neovascularisation, laser burns, capillary drop out, subhyaloid haemorrhage, an enlarged foveal avascular zone, and retinal microaneurysms. (55s)
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