9.1 Corneal Topography and Tomography
9.2 Confocal Microscopy
9.3 Optical Coherence Tomography - Macula
9.4 Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A)
9.5 Optical Coherence Tomography - Glaucoma
9.6 Optical Coherence Tomography – Anterior Segment
9.7 Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging
9.8 Fundus Angiography - Fluorescein
9.9 Fundus Angiography - Indocyanine Green
9.10 B-scan Ultrasonography & UBM
9.12 Automated Visual Fields
Corneal topography and tomography are often presented as a data station in examinations. Candidates should be able to systematically interpret a scan, and diagnose common conditions in conjunction with clinical findings. Typical cases presented in exams include: keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, post-keratorefractive surgery and post-corneal grafting.
Corneal topography maps the shape and features of the anterior corneal surface. Corneal topographers analyse the pattern of light rays reflected off the cornea and tear film-air interface and reconstruct the corneal shape. It assumes a fixed relationship between the anterior and posterior curvatures to determine the corneal power.
Corneal tomography evaluates the whole cornea by obtaining information from both anterior and posterior surfaces and evaluates the matter in between. Corneal tomographers are able to reconstruct three-dimensional images of the anterior segment. It gives better estimations of corneal power in patients with irregular corneal astigmatism.
“With the Rule”
“Against the Rule”
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