9.1 Corneal Topography and Tomography
9.2 Confocal Microscopy
9.3 Optical Coherence Tomography - Macula
9.4 Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A)
9.5 Optical Coherence Tomography - Glaucoma
9.6 Optical Coherence Tomography – Anterior Segment
9.7 Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging
9.8 Fundus Angiography - Fluorescein
9.9 Fundus Angiography - Indocyanine Green
9.10 B-scan Ultrasonography & UBM
9.12 Automated Visual Fields
Indocyanine Green (ICG) Angiography, often used to complement Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA), is a procedure used to acquire images of the choroidal vasculature. Indocyanine Green is a water-soluble dye which is almost entirely protein-bound (98%) which limits its diffusion out of the choroidal vasculature. It fluoresces in infrared light (790 – 805 nm) which has the ability to penetrate the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and blood and allows for visualisation of the choroidal circulation. Following intravenous injection of ICG, the dye remains in the retinal and choroidal vessels and the fluorescence can be detected by fundus cameras or confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes. Images are captured at 1-minute intervals up until 5 minutes and then at 5 minute intervals up until 20 minutes.
Mild side effects of ICG include nausea, vomiting and pruritus. It should not be used in patients with an iodine allergy and in patents with liver disease or uraemia. ICG is classified as a Category C drug in pregnant women (have caused or may be suspected of causing, harmful effects on the human foetus or neonate without causing malformations - these effects may be reversible) and should be avoided.
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